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THE EASTERN QUESTION. SAN STEFANO. The special correspondent of the Times at San I Stefano says: On the seaward verge ot the bare un- dulating wild that droops in lessening billows upon the Marmora, the once poor and shabby little fishing village of San Stefano has grown of recent years into a smart and jaunty-looking suburb, the samner resort of the cockneys ef Constantinople. In the hot months it gathers to it the Greeks and Armenians of the lower middle class to enjoy its beach, its bathing, ,its cafes on tho spa, and the adjacent tea gardens in the bosquet of Floria. Socially it is the iGravesend of Constantinople. Latterly a few well-built houses have given a varnish of re- 1 spectability to the appearance of the place, but otherwise it is a mere ktot of iil-coade dills' houses, whose crooked walls are all ablaze with glare of blue and red and yellow paint. In summer it looks cheerful enough lighted up by sunshine, especially on holidays, when it harbours troops of pleasure seekers. But in winter it is a doleful spot, desert and damp in its seat among reedy tarns and dreary brickfields, plashy and pool-pitted. Mariners know Stiti Stefano by its hgbt.house; the great far-shining beacon whose light meets that on Marmora Island, forty miles away. Sportsmen know San Ste- fano by the flights of quails attracted to its spreading uplands in the late summer. Otherwise until now obscurity has been its lot. Now it is to become historically famous, as Dardanus became famous when Sulla signed peace there with Mithri- dates. The Mithridates of the preeent peace is not, be it remarked, enchanted with the arrangement. I take it that their last ordained retreat, which doubles back the Turkish line from Yarin Bourgas at an ob- tuse angle, so as to open San Stefano to the Russian advance, has been as bitter as any of the bitter pills which the Ottoman army has had to swallow in its defeat. • AUSTRIA AND RUSSIA. It 13 believed in Paris that Prince Bismarck is making great efforts to remove the difficulties between Austria and Russia. The Chancellor thinks that when once Austria is appeased it will be more easy to bring England to an understanding with Russia. In his opinion, either the idea of a Conference must be abandoned or it muat only be held in order to arrive at a durable peace, and peace, be thinks, cannot be durable unless all. legitimate in- terests are satisfied in the ultimate settlement. Ac- cording to this idea, the Conference would have to be composed especially of copartaqeants. It. is doubt- ful if this is really the. theory of the Chancellor whether he can realise tt. There are certainly at this moment Powers which would on no account abandon their liberty of judgment and action in exchange for any territorial or maritime compensation. It is never. theless probable that if the Chancellor's intervention succeeds in removing the difficulties between Austria and Russia the Conference will meet, because neither England, France, nor Italy would be opposed to it from prejudice and d, priori. A PERILOUS PAUSE. The Daily News special correspondent, writing from San Stefano, savs I left Adrianople with the head- quarters staff. It was a beautiful day. Everybody was in the best spinm, delighted at the exchange of the muddy streets of Adrianople for the pretty village of San Stefano, on the shores of the Marmora. Our gaiety seemed almost misplaced, considering the gravity of the step we were taking. We arrived at Tcbafcaldja about six in the evening. Here General Skobeleff's corps and part of the Guards were drawn up to receive the Grand Duke. He reviewed them, and found the troops, having had a rest, in excellent con- dition; but when on the point of continuing the journey, he was accosted by Tahir Bey, the Turkish officer appointed for regulating tbo lines of delimita- tion, who for some days bad been at Skobeleff's head- quarters. Tahir said that Mukhtar Pasha had no orders to withdraw his troops from Kutcbuk Tchek- medje. He could not, therefore, allow the Russian troops to occupy these positions, nor to go to San Stefano. This was news indeed, and of the most serious nature. The Turks were refusing to do what they had agreed upon, and were stopping the Grand Duke after allowing him to come as far as Tcha- taldja. Had the Turks held out there could have been only one result-the assault of the Turkish positions next morning at daybreak. The moment was an exciting one, and for a couple of hours we seemed again on the brink of war. The telegraph was set going, but nothing seemed to come of it, for finally the Grand Duke grew very angry and indignant. He thought he was being trifled with. The spirit of his father rose within him, and as he walked up, his resemblance to the JjSmperor Nicholas just then was striking, and it was still more evident when he called Tahir Bey. and said to him with an energy that made the latter tremble, Go, and tell Mukbtar Pasha that when I give an order he must obey it, and at once, or it will be the worse for him. Go." e There was a dead silence for a moment. Everybody felt the gravrty of the situation. Tahir withdrew pre cipitately, sprang upon a locomotive, and in a moment iro,u^k darkness down over the line to utc uk Tcheknaedje as faBt as steam could carry f* W!LS n,ow known by all the officers present that unless the Turks abandoned the positions instantly they J attacked at daylight. The situation was con- sidered very critical. Peace was trembling in the balance, and yet there is not the slightest desire ex- pressed at head quarters for the continuance of the war under any circumstances whatever. Mr. Gladstone seems to fear the danger of the army escaping from the control of cooler heads at p ^ere is not the slightest danger or this. There has not been a move without orders. The aversion of the Grand Duke for the continuation of the war was shown in a somewhat amusing way. While waiting for the result of JLahirs mission ihe question of what was going to happen was criticised in an animated manner. The Grand Duke, who was excited and indignant at the situation, asked Skobeleff, it is said what he thought v- u i_ latter, with the reckless indifference which characterises him, replied, to %htrEngC»m0n8eigneUr'1 thiDk W 8baU hRVe n"Srr»biit you are a madman," exclaimed the u-rana jjuke in a half-angry manner, turning from him, and spitting as every Russian peasant spits when 8? J- Xl?^ P*ea8es him. It is the highest expression ofdispeasureoranger. inaily, after two hours, news came that the posi- tions were being evacuated by Mukhtar, and that the Russians were marching in. At midnight the train was again m motion, and at two o'clock on Sunday morning the Grand Duke was in San Stefano. The LU Tchekmedje was abandoned completely by Mukhtar, who is now behind the little creek that emptieø itøell into the Marmora, half way between San Stefapo and Jeni Kulle THfiT PROPOSED CONFERENCE. jJ^n.na correspondent, dating March 3rd, says: 1 e ecision about the Conference is still pending. k \Lf Ji*8!.1011 Baden-Baden has again been o j tea to, that Russia now manifests a predilection for Berlin, and that in the Prussian capital there is not so much objection to this as previously— °~i er as if things were going back- wa instead of forward; while the delays that nave occurred and are still occurring merely con- flrm the impression that nothing is likely to be defi- ° f-i as to the meeting of the Powers frS. J^face Russia and Turkey is concluded. eJp Pourparlers, too, seem to be looked upon 1- °eefu% ^an a few days ago. The chief cause of this appears to be that Russia is not much inclined to say anything positive about the concessions she might eventually make, which is all the more awkward as the exact conditions asked by her from Turkey are not Yet even known. In such circumstances, there- fore, it is not surprising if the pourparlers have not made much progress. OF THE TREATY OF PEACE. e,-UaUy Chronicle says:—Our Vienna cor respondent telegraphs that the peace is i40 have been signed at Pera, in the hote of the Russian Embassy, but as this intelligence lacks confirmation, he trusts to a private telegram from Pera itself, which states that the treaty was signed at San Stefano. This view is borne out by a Reuter's telegram. The mere fact of the treaty being concluded, however, between Russia wu "7 ey».will not be of any great importance, wnat we chiefly desire to know are the terms of that important document, which will yet have to be re- viseo, amended, and altered in accordance with the general views of the European Powers. At the last moment it seems that Austria, under the auspices of Oount Andrassy, is quite prepared to make matters pleasant with Russia through the kind me- dIatIon of Germany. No doubt is apparent that the whole matter has been from the ?°T^T^nfelnen^. a foregone conclusion. We are I- 8t"a kas so far complied with Germany's eon ent'al statements that she has now entirely reo?wB r i(*ea of makin £ preparations for war ..881a, even if the latter should refuse to F to Austria's remonstrances regarding some )f the most essential clauses of the preliminaries • peace. Unless Russia accedes to Austria's I wishes, it is understood that the latter Power, in öhe most friendly manner possible, will occupy Bosnia and the Herzegovina with Russia's approval md consent; though why Russia's sanction to such 1 measure should be required is incomprehensible. Anyhow, it seems that Austria is about to proceed in his direction, though greatly to the displeasure >r the Hungarian Delegation, which, it is stated, has firmly resolved to refuse to Count Andrassy any vote of (confidence or credit which would tend to further the design of partitioning the Turkish Empire. We are afraid, however, that the Hunga rians will be unsuccessful in their views, which are rather too warlike to suit sensible people. Any- how, we have a pretty clear indication of Austrian policy in this great crisis of the affairs of Europe. Austria has been sounded, and the arrangements in progress, no matter of what com- plexion they may be, are ail intended to bear on the same result—namely, that Russia, for the moment, shall have her way, though in a modified manner. But this fatal renunciation of Austria's rights will be in time her owu doom, when Russia and Germany will be supreme. The times of the 4th indt. says: Lord Derby's statement in the House of Lordsl was to the effect that the conditions do not include the surrender of the Turkish fleet to Russia, and he added that the amount of the war indemnity has been redu ced fro m £ '40,000,000 to X12,000,000, and, further, that the Egyptian tribute has notbeen pledged for paying it. Our correspon- dent at St. Petersburg adds to this imperfect news a few facts of importance. The cfded territory in Asia Minor includes Batoum, Kars, and Bayazid, but not Erzeroum. In Europe the southern boundary of Bulgaria is not accurately defined, but the line' is to be drawn somewhere to the north of Adrianople and Salonica. The amount of the war indemnity is given by our correspondent at 100,000,000 -roubles—that is to say, at about the same sum at which Lord Derby fixes it. In recover- ing this money Russia will respect the mortgages granted to foreign creditors, and cspec ally tbo Egyptian tr bute. The question of the Straits will be submitted te the Congress. We learn from other sources some further details as to the proposed cession of Bessarabia and tbosprangements made in anticipa- tion of it, as to the navigation of the Danube, and as to tho,right of road to be reserved for the Porte to its outlying territories in Europe. GERMAN MEDIATION. The Times Vienna correspondent says The German Government is endeavouring to mediate between Eng- land and Russia, as it tries to do between Vienna and St. Petersburg. Its task has not been much facilitated by the publication of the peace conditions, which at Berlin, however, are not believed to be accurately stated. Thus, as regards the delimitation of Bulgaria, the westward extent is, said to be not yet definitely fixed. The question of how far Bulgaria shall stretch in that direction is of quite as much im- portance to Europe as to Turkey, for the extension of the new Principality to the lEgean would practi- cally mean the securing of a. naval station to Russia on that sea, just as the giant of a port to Montenegro would have a similar signification in the Adriatic. If the published text of the condition as to the Straits of the Dardanelles be correct, the rules affecting the entrance thereinto of men-of-war will remain unaltered; but it does not seem clear whether the stipulation equally applies to the going out of Russian battle-ships from the Black Sea. If it should not, there will be nothing in the way of the Russians sending out their men- of-war to the naval stations in the Ægean. Nay, with Bulgaria extending to the iEgean, the question of the Straits loses much of its importance, for means may be found to construct men-of-war in one of the ports of that sea. So much the better, then, if the extension of Bulgaria to the Ægean is not yet quite decided. Another point which is not re- garded as accurately stated is the demanded addi- tion of territory to Servia on the Bosnian side, although the declaration that the new ground will in no case extend west of the Drina is calculated rather to alarm than reassure. The Drina in its upper course traverses that narrow strip of land intervening between Servia and Montenegro. If, therefore, the Drina is to be taken as the frontier line higher up, as it is at present lower down to- wards Rosnia, the only possible line of communica- tion between tbat province and what may remain of European Turkey will be cut, and thus Bosnia and the Herzegovina, or what may remain of it, would become an Ottoman enclave between Austria, Servia, and Montenegro, which would be an indirect way of forcing the annexation of it to one of the three. Another point,'moreover, the accuracy of which is contested, is that about the territorial aggran- disement of Montenegro. Although Russia may desire that small hill country to get a port, she does not mean definitely to settle this question with Turkey, reserving it to the negotiations with the other Powers. Were this the case there certainly would be one cause less for a possible complication. All this, however, must be but surmise until the exact terms of peace are really known, which is not the case here, at any rate, where no official information has been received on the subject. THE LINES OF STAMBOUL. The Pera correspondent of the Times, dating Feb. 26th, says: I rode from San Stefano, through the lines of the two armies, this afternoon, passing through Stamboul on to Pera. The little river Kara Su separates the two lines, lhe Bridge over this stream is about 100 feet in length. Two Russian sentries stand at the southern end of the bridge, and two Turks at the other. No pastes are demanded of civilians. I saw hundreds of people passing and repassing without a word of inquiry being addressed them from any of the sentries. The Turkish troops, leaving their former position on the Hadem oi lines, inarch along the roads towards Constanti- nople in company with straggling Russians. All are fully armed, butr-Ahey fraternise together in a most remarkable manner. I consider the present relations between the officers and soldiers of the two armies, as observed at various points, to he one of the most ex- traordinary incidents of this war, and, indeed, fit to excite astonishment in any war. I met several crowds of Arab recruits in the streets of Stamboul. They had just received their uniforms. Everything was perfectly quiet in all the Turkish quarters of the capital. The relations above referred to between the lines on the Kura Su were only initiated within the last twenty-four hours. Previously there was a consider- able interval between the pickets. This fact, coupled with the singular absence of anything like hostility, suggests that the final arrangement of peace must be nearly consummated. Turkish troops still remain at Hademkoi and other stations between there and San Stefano. This mixing up of the two armies is certainly an anomaly in warfare. RUSSIA AND ROUMANIA. A Paris correspondent, under date 27tb ult., says It appears from the Ministerial declarations made in the Roumanian Senate two days ago that the Cabinet has ground for hoping that it will be authorised to send a representative to the Conference. The Ministers stated that the agents of the Powers had given assur- ance that the independence of Roumania would be proclaimed by the Conference as a fait accompli. M. Bratiano said that when at the Livadia interview he referred to the suspicion that Russia wished to take back Bessarabia, Prince Gortschakoff protested that the Czar was innocent of this intention. Nevertheless, by way of precaution, a provision as to Roumania's integrity was inserted in the Convention of the 16tb of April. Some time after, General Ignatieff showed M. Bratiano that Russia had no frontier on the side of Bessarabia. M. Bratiano replied that if Russia wanted to have the Pruth as a frontier, Roumania wanted much more not to part with 500,000 Rou- manians, and rejected all offers of territorial exchange, even that of the cession of a fortress on the Danube. PUBLIC FEELING IN RUSSIA. A correspondent writing from the interior of Russia states that the news that the Russian army had entered Constantinople caused there intense enthusiasm, together with a bitter feeling of hostility against the English for sending their fleet to the Bosphorus. This latter feeling has since been so strongly displayed in some places that ther Eng- lish residents have been in constant fear of in- sult. At Saratoff the telegram announcing the news reached the town during a public perform- ance at the theatre. The manager at once stopped the piece and read the intelligence to the audi- ence, which manifested unbounded enthusiasm. The National Anthem was sung three times in succession then, every individual connected with the theatre being brought upon the stage, the hymn WAS sung several times more. It was fully understood by the audience at Saratoff, as well as by the people in other Russian towns, that the alleged entry of the army into Constantinople would in all probability lead to war with England, but this had no other effect than to make the measure all the more popular, a conflict with England being regarded with as much delight as the outbreak of hostilities was with Turkey this time last year. The bitter feeling against the Turk has entirely died out. The English alone are regarded with enmity and dislike. WHAT SERVIA THINKS. A Belgrade correspondent, writing on the 20th ult., says: The question as to the prospects of Servia is anxiously discussed here. There being a strong and general feeling in the principality in tavour of the annexation of Old Servia, or, at least, as much of it as shows a preponderance of the Servian element, a large party for the sake of that cbject would prefer the country to remain under Turkish suzerainty, paying a tribute to the Porte, than have independence, and forego the hope of seeing the Slav element united in the Balkan Peninsula. From this point of view they think England and Austria should demand an enlargement of the Servian frontiers. Servia once independent is lost to Turkey, but in that case Russian influence would pre- dominate. Turkey desires that Bulgaria should be large, seeing it would not be entirely lost to her, and the larger that province was the greater would be the tribute she would receive from it. Russia has the same desire in reg-rd to the extent of Bulgaria, as her influence and power would be paramount there, and, by imposing on the new Sf.atea Prince of her own cboia", would convert it into a Muscovite dependency.



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