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FOREIGN AND COLONIAL. F

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THE SCHOOL GOARD AND THE !…

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THE IRISH EDUCATION QUESTION.

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THE EASTERN QUESTION. :

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THE EASTERN QUESTION. THE PBAOfl PRELIMINARIES. j The Journal de St. Petersbourg, the organ of Prince Gortschakoff, publishes the text of the preliminary conditions of peace, signed by the Plenipotentiaries at the Bussian head-quarters at Adrianople. The conditions are as follows: Preliminary Conditions of Peace communicated by Mgr. tue Grand Duke Oommander-in-Ohief to the Turkish Delegates: Should the Turks demand peace or an armistice at the outposts, his Imperial Highness the Commander- in-Chief shall inform them that hostilities cannot be suspended unless the following bases shall have been previously adopted: p I.-Bulgaria, within the limits determined by the majority of the Bulgarian population, and the limit of which shall not, under any circumstances, be more circumscribed than that indicated by the Constantinople Conference, shall be erected into an autonomous tributary principality, with a national Christian Government and a native militia. The Ottoman army shall no longer remain in Bulgaria, excepting at certain points to be mutually agreed upon. J II.—The independence of Montenegro shall be re- cognised. An increase of territory equal to that which the fortune of arms has caused to fall into its hands, shall be secured to it. The definitive frontier shall be hereafter arranged. IH.-Tbe independence of Roumania and Servis shall be recognised. An adequate territorial in- demnity shall be secured to the first, and a rectifica- tion of frontier to the second. IV.—Bosnia and the Herzegovina shall be granted an autonomous administration, with adequate guarantees. Analogous reforms shall be introduced into the other Christian provinces of Turkey in Europe. V.-The Porte shall undertake to indemnify Russia for the expenses of the war, and the losses which she has had to incur. The nature of this indemnity, whether pecuniary territorial, or otherwise, shall be settled hereafter. His Majesty Sultan shall come to an understanding with his Majesty the Emperor of Russia to protect the rights and interests of Russia in the Straite of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. In proof of the acceptance of these essential bases, Ottoman Plenipotentiaries shall proceed immediately to Odessa or to Sebaatopol, there to negotiate with the Russian Plenipotentiaries preliminaries of peace. As soon as the acceptance of these preliminary con- ditions shall be officially notified to the commanders. in-chief of the Imperial armies, armistice con- ditions (Conventions a Armistice) shall be negotiated at the two theatres of the war, and hostilities shall be provisionally suspended. The two com- manders in-chief shall have power to complete the above-mentioned conditions, while icdicating certain strategic points and certain fortresses which will have to be evacuated as a material guarantee of the acceptance by the Sublime Porte of our armistice con- ditions, and of its entrance on the path of peace negotiations [entr6e dans la vote des neqocvatvms de pais). RUSSO-TURKISH ALLIANCE. The correspondent of the Daily Chronicle at Vienna telegraphs on the 8th inst. as follows: The diplo- matic negotiations between Prince Gortschakoff and the Vienna Cabinet respecting some of the stipula- tions of the draft treaty are gradually assuming more peaceful issues, and Count Andrassy hopes that a favourable result will be attained. Bussia has propoaed that the Conference shall meet at Baden Baden or Dresden. No resolution has been come to either as to the place and time of meeting. inrom Count Zichy, at Constantinople, and from the Bussian Embassy, Coun^ Andrassy has been infortaed of the exact terms of the armistice and draft treaty, but no official formulation of these terms has yet been published. They are said to coincide in sub- stance with those pnblishedin the Agence Susse and JourmlM.Petenlourg, Iam, however, informed by a most reliable authority that a Russo-Turkish alliance for offensive and defensive purposes has been formed. To this end the Porte has ceded to Russia the tem- porary military occupation of certain cities and towns, in order to secure the authority of the Sultan's Govern- ME A .8^*l intervention by foreign Powers or against any disorders by Turkish subjects If necessary the e v'i1 ?ccePt military occupation, by Bussian 0?.n8tanhEOPle, in order to assure security. DOtt re £ arded as inimical to the w* do J Gallipoli, the Bussians are left to decide for themselves as to the desirability or Porte will offer no re- °?? h|B to Bussia the right ^Dardanelles*" PS thr0Ugh the BoaPfaorua and mi W* LBVY E* SPRING. e as ern Budget learns from Warsaw that pre- parations are being made in the kingdom of Poland •°rfofnlTu 77u°f,about 40>000 recruits next spring. It 3.. losses sustained by the Bussian army 11ffi ;,1?I ar* n*uc*1 heavier than they have been officially represented to be, and that this was especially the case in the recent crossing of the Balkans, where the Russians lost three times the number stated in the i?a Jp6??rtfL Notwithstanding the financial diffi- culties of the Bussian railways, the Government is laying ^own at a great expense a second line of rails to. facilitate traffic on the lines which proceed to the western frontier of the Empire. This measure is sup- posed to have been taken with a view to a military occupation in great force after the conclusion of peace., mu BOSSES AT BATOUM. lne Constantinople correspondent of the Man- chester Guardian, telegraphing via Syra, saya: A great victory was gained on the 30th January at Batoum. The, Busstana made » desperate attempt to carry the lines of Buboo Hinssir, after they had beard of the withdrawal of ten battalions to Con sUntmople in Hobart Pasha's squadron. They were, however, defeated with great slaughter. Over 2000 were killed and 300 taken prisoners. The latter have been placed on board the ironclads. The Turkish loss was slight. The Fethi Bulend and the Avni Illah, ironclad corvettes, contributed greatly to this success. Lying off the flank of the attacking force, they swept the plains between the rival intrenchments. RUSSIAN MILITARY MOVEMENTS. At nine o'clock on the morning of the 29th of January a force of cavalry constituting the advanced guard of General Strukoff captured Tschorlow. The Kussian troops which took part in the engagement con- aisted of one squadron of the Moscow Life Dragoon Regiment and two sotnias of the 1st Regiment of Don Cossacks, while the forces of the enemy comprised 1000 regular horae, together with Circassians. After a nana-to-hand fight, the Turks began to retreat, at first m order, but eventually in confusion. The Russian troops then entered the town, which proved i 1 ma&ed. The Pasha in command of the place had taken to flight, leaving all the official docu- ments in the konak. The telegraph apparatus also fell uninjured into the hands of the Bussians. Their 1088 was four men killed and nine wounded. On the -ff/tnult. General Ernrodt took posseesien of Oaman Bazar, which he found to have been pillaged and com- pletely destroyed by the Turks before their withdrawal from the place. MASSAORE OF CHBISTIANS NEAR BOUBGAS. In the Turkiah Chamber attention has been drawn to the massacre of the population of a Christian village near Bourgas by a detachment of Albanian regular troops. During the panic caused by the Cir- cassians and Bashi-Bazouks, the Governor of Bourgas contided the Care of Stathopulo to an Albanian de- tachment of regular troops. When the Albanians were thus constituted the guardians of the village they demanded a ransom of two thousand pounds •KI inhabitants. It being impos- f? e_, 0 pay, the villagers sent messengers to f6 -??i!-e,?.0r of Bourgas. When the Albanians ear is they became furious and began the attack. Then commenced, says the Mytelene deputy, support- inf, ky official documents, the suffering, or ratner the martyrdom of the unfortunate population, The troops pursued the inhabitants with firearms and yataghans, and the terrified people took refuge in the church. The Albanians beaieged the building for three days, during which they constantly fired upon £ j°fSuPan*18, Only two hundred out of eight dred succeeded in escaping. The rest were cruelly massacred. The women were dishonoured. Even ? kn were not spared. The Chamber dec ed that urgent measures should be adopted. tv, TVTHE ATTITUDE OF GBEECE. f ^f8 remarks that "whatever sympathy may i t f +lD ,°Pe for the Hellenic cause, Greece is not li e y o receive any assistance in her present fruitless and misguided enterprise. There may have been a moment during the course of the war, now, we will hope, at an and, when the active intervention of Greece might have secured for her a title to demand that for which she now must sue. But that moment, which the Greek Government no doubt waited for with anxious suspense, came and went with a rapidity which took every one by surprise, and what might at one time K 660 fighting must now be attained, if at a I^20^lati°n Greece, like Servia, is powerless against Turkey alone, even in the shattered condition of the latter, and, though she may find powerful friends in the Conference, she will find no effective allies in the field. Even Servia, though she long hung back, yet seized at last the opportune moment for taking the field but she now sees that an isolated continuance of hostilities would be fruitless, and has assented to the armistice concluded by the Bussian commanders. Greece cannot do better than follow this example. She must see that the time for warfare Î8 over. However strongly Englishmen may sympa- thise with her legitimate aspirations, the best we can i do for her at present is, as Lord Derby said, to help to arrange the present difficulty and give a reasonable I support to her demands at the Conference." I ] PROCLAMATION OF THE ARMISTICE. There is news that on the 2nd inst. already the armistice was proclaimed in the Bussian camps, both in Europe and Asia, which is another curiosity, »s the official intimation of its conclusion was only announced from St. Petersburg later. There is no word, how- ever, as to whether the same has been done in the Servian and Montenegrin army, or in the Rou- manian force before Widin indeed, as for the two I first, they seemed inclined to resist the armistice, which comes too soon for them, as neither of them j has as yet laid hands on all they wanted to secure, and the Montenegrins especially were meditating an attack on Scutari in concert with some of the Albanian tribes. All will doubtless depend upon whether any stipulations have been made with regard to them likewise. As for the Greeks, the news is I that, in spite of the armistice, their action will not be stopped and that the army will continue its march into Thessaly. THE DANUBE STRONGHOLDS. I It seems that the stipulation for the evacuation of the Danube strongholds does not comprise Shumla and Varna, which are to remain in the hands of their present possessors. The Turkish troops in the other river fortresSts will probably have to retire to these places, and part of the forces which will be thus available are said to be destined to act against the Greeks. Those of Sulei- man's troops still at Kavala have already received orders to embark for Salonica. The Russians, we hear, are to remaiil at Lule Bourgas, Tchorlu, and Rodosto, in the direction of Constantinople. Except I these scanty details, however, gathered from one or the other side, all is quite dark about the conditions of the armistice and may possibly remain so until the stipulations made are actually carricd into Effect. CAPTAIN BURNABY'S ACCOUNT OF A FIERCE BATTLE. Captain Burnaby, in his account in Mayfair of the engagement near Karmarli with Ohakir Pasha's force, says: "Baker Pasha, with a small brigade of 2800 men, was sent to the village of Tashkasan to hold the newly-arrived Russian force in check, whilst Chakir Pasha determined to retreat with the remainder of our troops in the direction of Statitza. I accom- panied Baker, and on the last day of the year 1877 saw the best contested battle against over- whelming numbers that it has ever been my good fortune to witness. The Russians had 30,000 men, we only 2800. The odds were great against us. Things looked very black fcr Valentine Baker and his little force. From our position at Tash- kasan we could see lines upon lines of the foe coming forward to attack. The battle raged from day- break to sundown. It was a desperate one, and Ohakir Pasha's reply to Baker's repeated request for reinforcements was that he had none to give, and that we must at all cost hold the position as if it were carried by the foe the whole of his (Chakir Pasha's) army, which was retreating, would bs taken in flank and annihilated. The Turks fought splen- didly. They struggled for every inch of ground with extraordinary tenacity. Each minute of daylight seemed a year, and Baker kept looking at his watch, the Turks meanwhile gazing at the sun, old Nature's timepiece—as until nightfall it would be impossible for us to abandon the position. The hours rolled on, and our men died in their places. The Turkish ranks became each moment more thinned by the bul- lets of the foe, and the plucky survivors of the little brigade stood up on the mountain ridge, with their forms standing out in bold relief against the sky-line, and returned volley for volley to the slowly but steadily advancing enemy. Just before sunset the Russians collected themselves for a supreme effort, and charged home at the Turks. Our men burst forth with their battle-cry, and the Ya Allah Ya Allah! re-echoed over the mountains. The Russians cheered in response, but their hurrahs were of no avail. The Mussulmans dashed at their foe. Shoulder to shoulder, there was no flinch- ing on either side, and the steel was driven home. Baker ordered his bugler to sound the Ya Allah and the Ottoman soldiers again took up the strain. They seemed possessed of superhuman enersy. Each man looked as if he possessed the strength of ten. Another charge, and the Russians were driven back a few hundred yards. It was now too late for the enemy to make another effort. In the dark we marched to the plain below. Here Baker; ■assisted by Colonel Alii*, his aide-de-camp, who had behaved with great galtantry during the battle, mustered bis little force. Out of 2800 men more than 600, of jihe brave fellows had bitten the dust, nearly 400 being killed outright. There was little quarter given on either side. You ican diAdeirstand the disproportion between the lists of the killed and wounded at the roll call. The Muscovites must have suffered very severely, owing to their generals persisting in attacking us in column, the more particularly tqwards the end of the day."

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