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::OUR LONDON LETTER.

MARRIED MEN CALLED UP.I

GOVERNMENT MEASURE ATTACKED…

SUBMARINES IN ATLANTIC. I

I U BOAT SUNK. —?—

OFFICER'S GALLANT ACT. I

BRICK FOR A ZEPPELIN. I

I A MAD BULLI

I AUTHOR AS ABSENTEE. I

I BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. -0-

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BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. -0- I WHY DOES A WAGTAIL WAG? Why does a wagtail wag its tail? This ques- tion was once put to the late Dr. Russel Wallace by his daughter. The famous scientist was ready with the answer: "That's quite easy, on Darwinian principles. Many birds wag their tails. Some Eastern ny- catchers-also black and white-wag their long tails up and down when they alight on the ground or on a branch. Now these varied motions, like the motions of many butterflies. caterpillars, and many other' animals, must have a use to the aniinal, and the most com- mon, or rather the most probable, use is either to frighten or distract an enemy. If a. hawk was very hungry and darted down on a wagtail from up in the air, the wsgging tail would be seen most distinctly and be aimed at, and thus the bird would be missed, or at most a feather torn out of its tail. The bird hunts for food in the open, on the edges of ponds and streams. and would be especially easy to capture, hence the wagging tail has been developed to baffle the enemy." The extract is from "Alfred Russel Wallace," by James Marchant. (Cassell.) I THE RED CROSS DOGS. The part taken by the dogs of the Allies in the present war has been splendid (says F. Mather Burton in "Little Folks "). In addi- tion to the faithfulness and devotion of the untrained dogs, the work accomplished by trained animals has been great. The blood- hounds trained by Major Richardson for mili- tary duty, and the Airedales, whom he con- eiders most suitable and intelligent foi Red Cross work, are examples. Every ambulance now has its staff of trained dogs, who by their keen sense of hearing! and scent are such valu- able assistants. It is a well-known fact that dogs can hear from 200 to 400 yards farther than human beings, and considerably more than this distance if the wind be in a favour- able quarter they take advantage of the least puif of air or wind to help them in scenting out their quarry. The way the Red Cross dog discovers the wounded is truly wonderful. He is clad in a uniform consisting in a white coat with capacious pockets containing a Bask of cordial and a roll of bandages-for the wounded can sometimes do much towards giving themselves "first aid." The dogs run on in advance of the ambulance, possibly on a lead but often with- out a collar to impede their entrance through thickets or dimcult places. If the wounded man is too feeble to make use of the "first aid" requisites, the dog's invaluable in- stinct and careful training teach him to remain by the patipnt. often nestling close to him and giving him the benefit of his own animal warmth, meanwhile barking to attract the at- tention of the bearers. There is no end tc the sagacity of this noble creature, which in the present war has more than ever proved his right to be called -the friend of man." WERE THERE REAL DRAGONS? I Writing in the "Quiver on the legends of St. George, the patron saint of England, Mr. A. C. Benson says: These stories of dragons, which seem to be of immense antiquity, and are found among all nations and in all languages, are very curious things. What do they represent? Some people have supposed that their origin is to be found in the fossil bones of extinct morsters, hanging on cliff sides or dug up out of the earth, which set old imaginations working. It has been sometimes suggested that they represent still older real adventures, and that some pre-his- to ;ic creatures, dragons indeed, may have lin- gered on in sequestered places, before becoming totally extinct, and have thus overlapped the origin of humanity. We know very little about the antiquity of the human race, but recent discoveries all tend to show that men have existed on earth for a far longer period than used to be supposed. So that it is perhaps con- ceivable that these tales of iights with dragons may be accounts, handed down from imme- morial times, of real conflicts between primitve man and primitive creatures. Or again, they may perhaps represent exaggerations of ancient travellers' tales, stories of fights with alligators or crocodiles. The stories of dragons, of a reptile kind, with mailed coats and monstrous jaws. are quite distinct from the olo.etories of conflicts with fierce beasts, wolves or bulls; and though they have been freely adorned with additions of wings and nery breath and sting- ing tales, yet it can hardly be supposed that something real does not lie behind them, some- thing which im'crossed itself very deeply and terribly in the minds of ancient folk. I SIR WALTER SCOTT ON MUSTARD. It was the great Sir Walter Scott who, when breakfasting with a guest, said to the latter:â "I don't thmk people realise what a wonderful aid to digestion and what a splendid stimulant mustard really is. I always take it with bread and butter, and I would gladly take it oftener than I can or do, because it is such a line digestive." And yet there are still some good people who tenaciously stick to the fallacy that it isn't the "correct thing" to eat mustard with mutton. Happily the<r number becomes lees as the years roll on. Cblman's mustard is above all things a digestive, No one needs to be told nowadays that with beef it is a pleasant necessity; there are others, however, who still need reminding that it certainly is a useful adjunct and appetizer to cold mutton, while if mixed on the plate with red currant jelly, eaten with hot roast mutton, it is perfectly delightful. PORTRAIT OF THE KAISER. I Here is a pen-picture of the Kaiser, by Baron Beyens, who was Belgian Minister in Berlin before the war: "A monarch mighty in rank and power, effusively cordial to strangers whom he wished to charm and dazzle, but liable to disappoint those who were rash enough to trust in his kindness of heart; always able to give the im- pression of complete frankness, and using this as a means of seduction; really admiring nothing but strength and ready to abuse his own; looking with utter contempt on small States and petty princes; yet never loath to flatter them when occasion demanqpd; a wooer of public opinion, especially that of other countries, but resolved to defy it in order to attain his ambitions of a faith that was sin- cere, if superncial, yet did not prevent him from setting his interests above his most solemn engagements, and ruthlessly tearing up any treaty that had become inconvenient; always careful to play his parts, and clever in staging hia efforts accustomed, unfortunately, to seeing everything bow to his will; such a spoilt child of fortune that he came to the point of thinking himself infallible; one whom Nietzche might have called a superman and the Romans a demigod." The quotation is from Baron Beyens' book, "Germany Before the War." (Nelson.) I KITCHEN REFUSE IN GERMANY. I Mr. Ainsworth Mitchell, in "Knowledge," draws attention to the thoroughness with which the Germans have organised every de- tail in connection with their food problem. So far back as November, 1914, the Prussian Home Secretary directed the attention of the authorities of < the towns in Prussia to the necessity of utilising kitchen refuse. Practi- cal tests showed that when this was rapidly dried in a suitable plant it was disinfected and concentrated, and when used as a feeding stuff for cattle had a food value of 67.3 to 68.3 per cent., as compared with 67.9 per cent. for fodder barley. Since then it has been made obligatory on every householder to &epa. rate material suitable for fodder from paper and other unsuitaMe refuge. A further improvement put forward is that the fat, which is estimated at about twenty grammes per head daUy, should be extracted from the refuse, and that the waste heat from the gas works should be used for working the plant. It is also suggested that this source of heat might be utilised for drying potatoes for food and for treating trade refuse, such as brewer's grains.

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uDRESS OF THE DAY.I

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ILOSS OF E22 IN THE NORTH…

I MR. HAWKER'S WORLD RECORD.…

NO C.0s. NEED APPLY. II

BRAVE BRITISH OFFICERS. I

PRIZE COURT RECORD.I

I SEEING ZEPPELIN KILLS A…

I TOO TIMID FOR ARMY.I

GUNNER S FATAL DIVE.I

I PLYMOUTH TRAM FATALITY.

"TO BLOW UP ST. HELENS."

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