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THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH.

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IRON AND COAL. -I

AGRICULTURE.

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AGRICULTURE. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. In continuing this subject from last week, I now pro- pose to give a summary of the subjects upon which questions are asked at the examinations on the principles of agriculture under the scheme of the Science and Art Department of the Government. These particulars will enable anyone to gather a general idea of what agricultural science is, its scope, and also the miscel- laneous branches that are comprised in it. This sum- mary will, moreover, serve as a guide for private study for those in rural districts who are wishful to make progress in agricultural knowledge, and who may not have the opportunity of attending classes to receive systematic tuition. Summary of subjects in elementary stage:â Soils their different kinds variations in composi- tion, texture, and condition substance found in plants; exhaustion of the land, differences between good and poor land, necessity for manure, uses of farm-yard manure and artificial manures; lime, marl, and chalk as manures. Tillage operations changes produced in the soil and influence on growth of crops drainage of land, its necessity, and its results. Crops grown on various kinds of soils regulations in the rotation of crops; good and indifferent courses of cropping. Live stock best kinds of stock for different farms the economy of good stock management; the require- ments for making good dairy farms, good sheep farms, or good grazing lands. Food the chemical matters found in various kinds of food, in milk, green food, hay, corn, and other pro- duce the different materials necessary for the growth of animals, and process of fattening them. Subjects of advanced stage:â Classification of soils: chemical and physical con- ditions regulating the barrenness and fertility of soils essential differences in the cultivation of light and heavy soils; influence of climate on the productive powers of the soil. Conditions regulating the production, management, and application of farm-yard manures: conditions regulating the use of artificial manures the different action of bones, lime, phosphates, and salt as fertilisers special action of manures upon the corn crops, roots, and grass. Adulteration of manures combination of manures of different kinds, manures which impoverish the land. Conditions regulating the selection and rotation of crops chemical composition of different crops chemical changes in the ripening of grain, roots, and fodder crops; influence of climate on the growth. Combined influence of soil and climate upon systems of husbandry upon the nutritive quality of the flour of wheat and oats the feeding power of roots and various kinds of straw. Conditions regulating the vital power of seeds, their character and quality why change of seed is necessary adulteration of seeds. Principles regulating the breeding of stock the in- fluence of pedigree, good and bad qualities, results of different systems of breeding, special aptitude of various breeds for different kinds of soil and climate the principles regulating special peculiarities of stock, such as early maturity, rapid production of flesh and fat, growth of wool, and production of milk; influence of food and exercise upon the yield of butter and cheese peculiar influence of irrigated or sewage grass upon dairy produce influence on sheep as regards breed, climate, soil, food, and shelter, and the character of wool. Constituents of various kinds of food and proper classification advantages of purchasing food as a means of enriching a farm good and bad systems of feeding stock. The malting qualties of barley and its use as a feed- ing material: relative value of natural and artificial grasses; conditions regulating the fertility of grass land principles upon which hay-making should be conducted in order to preserve feeding properties. Drainage of land, its influence on the soil and sub- soil irrigation, value of different modes; relative qualities of raw and clarified sewage the use of sewage as a manure and the quality of crops produced by it. Orchards and fruit grounds: influence of soil and climate on the growth of fruit; woodland plantations; conditions for growing luxuriant timber and underwood. Diseased condition of different crops the results of bunt or smut-ball mildew and blight on corn crops finger-and-toe clubbing, and curl in root-crops and cabbages potatoe disease canker in fruit-trees. Farm buildings systems of arrangement and general plan of construction according to description of farm, and the peculiarities of the district. Respecting the examinations for "Honours" in the principles of agriculture, the questions are formed on the basis of those subjects named in the advanced course, as given above, with ample opportunity for candidates to show special excellence in any particular subjects they may have studied. The particulars now supplied will give a fairly accurate idea of the comprehensive nature of the subjects included in agricultural science. There are, as we know, no men so well qualified to make agriculture progressive and profitable as those who are able to unite .science with practice in all farming operations. Hence it is most desirable that all engaged in the practice of most desirable that all engaged in the practice of agriculture should have an intelligent grasp of the sciences bearing on the subject. Such a combination of knowledge enables farmers to become keener and more accurate observers, and so places them in a better position for developing agriculture fully and effectively. In the extension of this movement for promoting agricultural education; the country is much indebted to the energetic and encouraging work of the Central Chamber of Agriculture in London which is very watch- ful over the interests' of agriculture. The exertions of this chamber in helping forward this valuable scheme, and in stimulating the local chambers of agriculture in union with it, has earned for itself the gratitude of all earnest agriculturists in the kingdom. As an indication of the progress which has been made in advancing agricultural science, it may be mentioned in regard to the number of students in agriculture (youths and adults) at the May examinations in 1876 (the year in which the scheme was first introduced) that there were 155 candidates; in 1877 there were 800; in 1878 about 1,200 and last May there were over 1,500. Of this number it is estimated that four-fifths of the candidates were from Scotland and Ireland, and the remaining one-fifth from England and Wales. These figures are suggestive of the way in which the Govern- ment scheme is taken advantage of in the several parts of the United Kingdom. Let us hope then that the friends of Agriculture in North Wales will not hesitate to adopt such an accept- able system, for it is worthy of all the help and encour- rgement that can be given to it. At any rate, now that an interest has been awakened in this matter in those counties wherein this paper so largely circulates, we shall doubtless hear of the scheme being actively pro- moted in order that its advantages may be shared in bf our own districts. FFEmr. 20th September, 1879. The wheat crop in the Argentine Republic is reported to be "t;plendic1." I HE CORN TRADE.âThe JldarJc Lane Express says â W ith the exception of a few days sunshine at the beginning ot the week, the weather has been dull and gloomy, with a close damp atmosphere, which has told unfavourably on the condition of new wheat, but without impeding harvesting to any serious extent. Although we have arrived at the third week in September, scarcely any English wheat of this season's crop has been offered for sale, but it is to be feared that the variable quality of that which has appeared represents that too well the general condition of this year's produce. It must be admitted that this year's yield is by far the worst since 1876. The upward move in prices anti- cipated a fortnight ago has made a fair start in the advance of 2s. per quarter, which has been well main- tained throughout the week. Flour has necessarily shared in the advance to the extent of Is. per sack, and barrol feeding stuffs also have been held with increasing firmness. The Americans have fully realised their true positions as custodians of a large proportion of the old world's supplies, wheat has advanced 6 cents, per bushel in New York. THE HARVEST.âMr. J. J. Mechi, in a letter to the Times, says The thrashing and dressing machines are now revealing the sorrowful fact that the deficiency in our^corn crops, especially on heavy land, and even on well-farmed land, is greater than was anticipated, veri- fying Mr. Caird's and Mr. Scott's estimates of 30 per cent. under average. We all expected a better result, from the abundance of straw and numerous heads but the latter are ill-filled with very inferior shrunken kernels, and the straw, although bulky, lacks weight, and has a dark mildewy colour. Water-living weeds have had undisturbed possession among the corn crops, for their destruction was rendered impossible by the constantly saturated condition of the soil. Root crops are late, and only half a crop; potatoes much diseased. There hD..s been heavy loss by death of lambs, and cattle have cione badly on unripened, watery grasses. In fact, the absence of sunshine, a low temperature, and excess of rain, have prevented healthy development both in farm crops and in fruit. There is a great vacation of farms, and the local papers are filled with notices of farm stock sales and of farms to be let or sold." From Nenagh,' county Tipperary, we learn that most of the corn crops are cut and safe, the fine weather of last week doing wonders. Oats and barley are both heavy crops in straw and grain. Potatoes are failing. Turnips are backward. Hay is selling from 30s. to 35s. per ton. Barley opened at 20s. per barrel. The greatest loss will be the want of turf. SALE OF THE PIPE PLACE SHROPSHIRE FLOCK.âThe sale of the noted Shropshire flock of the late Mr. J. H. Bradburne, conducted on Saturday at Pipe Place near Lichfield by Messrs. Lythall and Manseil, auctioneers, attracted a large attendance. The flock comprised 50 grand shearling and other rams, 250 shearling and stock ewes, and 200 splendid ram, ewe, and wether lambs. Founded upwards of thirty years ago the Pipe Place flock is known to possess some of the best and most fashionable blood in the kingdom. Sires of great value have been periodically selected, including many R.A.S.E., prize sheep from eminent breeders. The shearlings were mostly sired by the celebrated rams "Lord Aston," winner of first prize, Birmingham, R.AS.E., and "The Clinker," from Mr. R. H. Masfen's flock. The five beautiful R.A.S.E. show theaves, sires" Clinker" and" Dignity," were bought at 7 guineas each by Mr. Darling. The shearling ewes sold at from 5 guineas to 55s. the stock ewes from 110s. to 65s. The first shearling ram, sire "Clinker," realised 30 guineas, being purchased by Mr. Cooper. The remaining prices worthy of note in this class were 18 guineas given by Mr. Keeling, 14 guineas Mr. Gibson, 12 guineas Jvlr. Stretton, and 10 guineas Mr. Ashmole. The old rams brought 17, 8, and 51 guineas, while the ram lambs realised from 105s to 42s.; the ewe lambs from 3 guineas to 35s. and the wether lambs 38s., the representative of the Baroness Roths- child being amongst the purchasers.

THE TRADE IN NORTH WALES.

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