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SCKIPTURE ILUJSTBA'I'IOSS.—iSo.…

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CHIT CHAT.I -i

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THE PRINCE OF AUCTlONKcRS.

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AGLUCULTUKE, COUMtiRC^ j AND…

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RO TTIT: EOlTOR OF THE GAZETTE…

BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT LIVERPOOL.…

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BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT LIVERPOOL. -Q- (Collclurled frolll the A thellællm ) pi 'he Geological and Geographical Section, on Wednesday, Dr. W. H Crook made some observa- tions I'll the unity of the Coal Deposits of England. The object of this communication was to show that die poal fields of F.ngland ami Wales were not dis- ti'ift basins, but that the supposed basins were only portions, which had been detached and elevated by lilC (\PJlCV of siPlli:ic and trap rock" of a much larger deposit, spread over the greater par' of the districts now covered by the new red sandstone. Of the vegetable origin of coil there is now no doubt ihe only question unsettled is, did the plants supplying tji'ow on the spots where it is found, or were they transported ? Or Crook inclined to ihe latter op'ni;ill> and conceives that this view may be extended ''ie c"»l of Belgium, of the north ot Francp, and the north-west of Germany the car- boniferous bed sot those countries having originated, 11 his opinion, in a d'ift of vegetable snbst tnces from countries lying to ihe east or LS E. ot them; and he al-o thought, that the extent and richness ol the English coal-fields, especially in the midland counties, arose in n considerable degree, from the impediments offered tn tiip transit of the drifted matter by the slate and other ancient formations of Wales and Cuinbei land. lie that the Chain wood Forest rocks had elevated the coal-field iie:ii- it, and a similar elevation had taken place at Nuneaton. v Mr G reenoii jh considered Ihe idea ol Dr Crook as very that the deepest of our coal basins has been found lo be ill South Wales. â Mr Young, from Nova Scotia, stated, that large deposits of cod had been found in that country. Mr Sedgwick requested the attention ol the meet- ing to an account, which he was about to submit, of the late unfortunate accident at the Workington Collieries. He pointed out, 011 tbe geological map, Ihe rocks which occur ill that neighbourhood, and stated seme of 1 he phenomena ot the stratifieat i- 11 of Il1e coal measures, which are there very much disturbed. There is an anticlinal line, on the oppo- site side of which the strata dip differently, so that, in one place, vei-3, important beds of coal crup out under the sea. Workings, quite submarine, have accordingly nee" carried 011 for so rue rime: ia the Isabella pit, a depth of la5 fathoms ullder high water has been readied. A'culpable want of caution ha been shown by the managers of late, as they have caused the workings to reach too near the seaâeven within fourteen fathoms of it iiiti the pillars and roof uf the older works bad been taken away, by which the danger was greatly increased. There had been repeated warnings from the shrinking of the ground, and from an old work having become filled with water;âalso iu the new workings â although the pumping brought iip 1,000 gallons per minote, the miners were in such danger of being drow ned, that several left the employment. III Iilc Liller PIHI of Julv, the sea at length broke in, filling the mine in all its pacts, in little more than two hours, and destroying twenty miles ot railway. On one side of the Camperdown dyke, which ranges through the mine, not a soul was saved, but several escaped from other parts and one individual, all Irishmall, cal- led Brennagh, had not only ii i-iii;irka I)l e escape himself, but saved three others by his intrepidity. Professor Sedgwick related to the Section this man's story, which was so singular, and told with such a mixture of the seriou" afld ludicrou.oftell in the language of the man himselfâ-that it is impossible 10 convey to the reader all idea ot the effect pro- duced on the audience. A remarkable (act in the escape of one of the individuals rescued by Bren- nag-Ii was, that he was aclnally blowlL tip the last open shaft of the ulÃue by the enormous force of the air.the noise of which wus heard at a considerable distance in the country. The first notice to Bren. uagh of the accident, was an unusual undulation ot airin the gal>ries, \i,1J made him suspect that all was not right, and he took the precaution of moving near to au airâpassage in the dyke, which lie had been permitted to use: he vas thus enabled to save himself and his companions. At the suggestion of the Professor, a subscript ion was made in the Sec- tion for Brennagh. which amounted lo In Section GâMechanical ScienceâMr Must.et made some observations 011 Railway Iron, founded 011 experiments carried on tor forty years. He ex- pressed himself much surprised, that hitherto, in contracts for iron fur railway purposes, fibre and hardness were not stipulated for, but were left to the chapter of accidents. Both these qualities might be attained by lii, the principal clra- racteristic of which consisted in doing away with the refining process now ill general practice, and the preventing the severe dec 11 bonizatiou to which theitonwasat present exposed. Several specimens I of iron, of extremely fine fibre and hardness, were laid before the Section, and afterwards removed to the Model Room. The great object of his process was to obviate I ho evil of lamination. Oil some railroads thev had been obliged 10 lay the iron t«0 or three limes but he had little doubt, that it would soon lie possible lo obtain a solid rail without any exfoliation. Mr C oltain mentioned, that he had known n piece of iron six inches thick, ;;ii(i cotisii(.II)IV be quite straightened bv blows, but, at the same time, to he greatly weakened; and that he attri- buted this to some of i,s constituent crystals being driven 'into it, by the force of the blows, like so many wedges, thereby weakening the strength of the it-oil. This year the B1 i'i~!l Association has lost one of its most aeii > e members by the death ot Professor Ritchie, which look p^aee at Musselburgh a tew davs ago. We must also notice with regret the early death 0f 1)r R!|s' of ihe London University, well known to the public as a disfnguished philolo- gist aud oriental scholar, and to a large circle of private friends a* a most amiable man.