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EDDA'S BIRTHRIGHT.

AMUSEMENT ON THE RAILWAY.

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CHRIST CliUKCH SUNDAY SCHOOL;…

DAIRY WORK

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DAIRY WORK The following is a translation of a Jelfer which was sent by Mrs Davie", loiiifaeii, llhuddlan, to a lady who sent inquiries from the Argentine Republic. The letter has appeared in some of our Welsh contemporaries, and its reproduction in English may m t be unprofitable. MADAM,âSome time -ago, I received a letter from you from South America and regret having been so long in replying to it. It afforded me 9 9 much pleasure to understand that you are desirous to find out the best, way of treating milk. How- ever, I am sorry to admit that it is a very difficult matter to explain in a letter how to make cheese. If you had some practical experience in that direction, but at the same time not being able to satisfy yourself entirely, I should have been able to give you a good deal of instruction in writing after hearing in what points you are deficient. It is necessary to learn cheese-making by observation and practice, rather than by reading. Much skill is requisite in cheese-making. If the cheese be not good, it must, certainly, cause a considerable loss to the owner of the stock. To learn how to churn and make butter is only a small matter in comparison to making cheese. As the best thingto do, I would advise you to go into a dairy school to learn the process, if there is such a school in the neighbourbood or to engage a skilful woman to instruct you. If you have twenty or more cows, they are certain to pay better by converting the milk into cheese, than by churning it into butter. I can furnish you with a little information how to make good butter. I understand by your letter that the climate is very hot there in summer; and the most important thing for you is to get a place cold enough to cool the milk in. It is a very im- portant matter to pay attention to the state of the weather in having to do with milk. When the weather is hot, the place where the milk is kept should be under 60 degrees in temperature; otherwise it will be impossible to get good butter. In case you will be allowing it to gather cream, the cream should be raised every twelve hours in sultry weather, and during thunderstorms. The atmosphere in such weather has the effect of producing a bad taste on the cream and a strong taste will certainly be on the butter. There is less labour in churning the cream only, but a great deal more care is required than in churning the milk. In the summer it ripens of itself, but when the weather becomes colrl. and near to 50 degrees, it is necessary to assist it by putting a little souring stuff in the pots, pans, or whatever coolers you make use of in that country. Some half-a-pint, or less, will be sufficient; and I then strain the new milk upon it. The best sour- ing is unchurned milkâsour skim milk if available. Buttermilk embitters. There are two kinds of souring-the sweet and the bitter. But the "bitter" deprives the butter of the sweetness and flavour which all butter should have. The butter of fresh cream is good but you are sure to lose the fourth part of the products of the milk if it is churned without being soured. It is of little im- portance that the milk becomes thick, unless you have some particular use to make of thick butter- milk. But it is of great importance that it turns into the taste of milk when it is thickened other- wise there is a very great risk of having bad butter in the winter and spring. A great care should be taken that it turns its taste before it becomes too old and also it is necessary that it should not become too sour, lest the sour taste should effect the butter. In preparing the milk for churning, and if you will be churning all the milk, it is in the 60 degree it should be in the summer. But if you only churn cream/from 56 to 58 it ought to be, according to the heat of the weather. It should be from 5 to 10 degrees warmer on cold and frosty weather; and when the cows are in calf thf milk is sharper. In making the butter, it should be lifted into one water. It becomes corrupt sooner by being placed in many waters. Afterwards it should be pressed clear of all milk drops" with the butter-worker or skewers, and salted to suit the taste of the people who will be using it. The salt is to be put in the butter, instead of attempting to season the butter in salted water. And there is no occasion that it should lie in water for more time than it will take you to wash it. An ounce of salt to three pounds of butter is re- quired for the markets of Wales. But an ounce to six or seven pounds is enough to suit the taste of the people of the great markets of England. Half- an-ounce to every pound is required to make the butter keep for months. I understand you have a thermometer. No dairy should be withont one and it should be dipped into the milk on every occasion before beginning to churn. I have been in the habit of using it for upwards of thirty years, and am now as sensible of its value to-day as I was the first time I used it. Trusting that these few lines will be of some use to you,-Yours truly, C. DAVIES.

1QUININE BITTERS.

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ST. ASAPH.

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